Republicans and Democrats are split on the issue of abortion. Democrats, per their official platform, are committed to ensuring access to safe and legal abortion care, while Republicans (as per their platform) are committed to protecting fetal life. These positions are consistent with the opinions of voters; according to a Pew poll, 82% of Democrats believe abortion should be legal in all or most cases, while 62% of Republicans believe it should be illegal in all or most cases. Furthermore, nearly half (48%) of Republican voters and leaders would support overturning Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court case that established a legal right to abortion access.
In 2022, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a landmark decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, in which it overturned Roe vs Wade and held that the Constitution of the United States does not confer a right to abortion. Following this, in September 2022, President Joe Biden promised to codify Roe and make it the law of the land.