The parties are split over how much the US government should spend on scientific research. A 2019 Pew Research Center survey found 62% of Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents support increased spending for scientific research compared with 40% of Republicans and Republican leaners. In Congress, Republicans tend to favor greater defense spending compared to non-defense funding. Republican leadership in the House opposed the CHIPS and Science Act of 2022 authorizing $280 billion for science and technology programs. It was passed in the House by a vote of 243 to 187.